Dr. Amal Hanna, PhD
International Journal of Research in Open Educational Resources
Background & Aims: Motivation positions itself in the centre of educational psychology, because it is vital to stimulate learning behavior either for formal students or informal learners whether they are in K-12, university or at post-study level. In the Self-Determination Theory (SDT), learners, are motivated from within, by enjoyment and curiosity; while many others are often motivated by external factors including attaining ego-enhancement or even to avoid guilt. There is a lack of knowledge, however, in relation to measuring the motivations for Open Content Learning Activities (OCLA), and especially whether such motivations can be understood using SDT. A model that integrates Goal Valence Theory (GVT) and Self-Determination Theory (SDT) was proposed to provide a systematic tool for investigation.
Methods: Item response theory was used to design the online questionnaire scale that assesses OER motivations. One large-scale survey was used to explore motivations to participate or otherwise to OCER. Participants were recruited by approaching subscribers to Wikibooks’ email list as well as advertisement published on Wikibooks website.
Results & Findings: (Confirmatory) Factor Analysis was used to explore motivations to participate and not-to participate into OCER. Results, of 262 responses, suggested that within intrinsic or extrinsic factors, there are approach and avoidance tendencies; and that SDT cannot be considered away from Goal Valence Theory (GVT) – which adds an important layer to the SDT. Results show the co-existence of intrinsic & extrinsic motivations and approach & avoidance motivations. Results suggest that self-learners are more likely to be excited and have their desire to learn and other endorsed values, while students likely to be “pushed” or encouraged to write and contribute to OCER until they enjoy/value what they are doing. Also, providing support and visible instructions/help may reduce any lack of confidence. Among other discussed findings in this paper, future research should consider a longitudinal experimental study that may explore how learning activities could be designed to enhance engagement and learning outcomes.
Keywords: Wiki, Online Volunteering, Open Educational Resources (OER), Open Content Learning Activities (OCLA), Formal & Informal e-Learning, Motivation, Self-Determination Theory (SDT), Goal-Valence Theory (GVT), Approach, Avoidance, Intrinsic, Extrinsic.
Cite as: Hanna, A. 2014, ‘How to motivate formal students and informal learners to participate in Open Content Educational Resources (OCER)’, International Journal of Research in Open Educational Resources, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 1-15, http://www.researchoerjournal.net/publications/2014/vol_01/no_01/ResearchOER_1(1)_01-15.pdf